The spring of 1863 came to an Army of the Potomac in the midst of change. After taking command from General Burnside in late January, “Fighting Joe” Hooker spent the early days of the year rebuilding the army, both physically and mentally. Meals were improved, with more fresh food brought in daily. The paymasters got everyone up to date on their pay, removing the burden of worrying about providing financially for those back home.
A new furlough system lessened desertions. Soldiers were granted extended leave to visit home, some for the first time since they’d enlisted more than two years prior. And as the furlough system lessened the number of men deserting, those that had already run were welcomed back. The last three weeks of March 1863 Continue Reading »
My second piece for the Times’ “Disunion” web series has been published. “Rise of the Infernal Machines” gives an overview of the torpedoes of the day, what we now mostly know as mines. Crude, unstable, and mostly non-functional, they provided the Confederacy with a new weapon with which to strike back at the superior Union navy. Despite their endless problems, they succeeded in sinking more Union warships than all other means combined (probably speaking more to the ineffectiveness of Confederate warships and fortifications than to effectiveness of the torpedoes). The article can be access HERE.
January 1863 saw the 19th Indiana and the Iron Brigade in winter quarters, camped at Bella Plain, VA, on Potomac Creek. Still smarting from the defeat at Fredericksburg, many referred to the winter of 1862-1863 as “the Valley Forge of the Army of the Potomac”. The soldiers built wooden cabins that they fitted with fireplaces and covered with their field tents, then settled in for several months of inaction.
With little to do, talk among the soldiers turned to the recent Emancipation Proclamation. Most were against it, in the respect that they thought it changed the course of the fight. A Captain of the 19th wrote “I dont want to fight to free the Darkeys. If any body else wants to do so, they are welcome to come and do so.”(sic) The near-general consensus throughout the unit and most of the army was that they had signed up to restore and preserve the Union, not free slaves. Obviously little thought was given to the main reason that had caused the war and brought them to that place. Still, others welcomed the proclamation and couldn’t wait to get freedmen Continue Reading »
Very happy to announce that the New York Times has published my first piece for their website. Ironclad Fever is about the armored warship building frenzy in both North and South after the Monitor and Virginia (Merrimack) battle in 1862.
I’m extremely pleased to be able to put all of the historical research I’ve done while building models and writing stories into this format.
“…just as we were training on the battery (gun emplacement or torpedo), we were struck by a torpedo, which exploded under our starboard bow, a few feet from the center and some 35 or 40 feet from the bow proper just under our provision store room, which crushed in the bottom of the boat so that the water rushed in like the roar of Niagara. In five minutes the Hold was full of water and the forward part of the gunboat was flooded… One of our heaviest bow guns had been dismounted by the force of the explosion, injuring three men. ” -George Yost.
On December 12th, 1862, the American Civil War saw yet another military first: USS Cairo became the first warship sunk by an underwater mine, or torpedo as they were known at the time. The Union Navy had known of Continue Reading »
After the Battle of Antietam, the Union Army took time to lick its wounds. President Lincoln and many in the Washington command structure champed at the bit and wanted McClellan and the army in pursuit of the Confederates to follow up on the victory. McClellan, though, stood by his decision to rest his battered forces and regroup.
The men of the 19th Indiana and the Iron Brigade rejoiced at the break. They’d been roughly handled in their first three battles, and their numbers depleted drastically. Immediately after the battle the unit camped on the battlefield near the Dunker Church, their objective the morning of the battle. As the fortunate began to trickle in from the hospital, the survivors walked the fields, burying the dead men and feeding huge bonfires to burn the dead horses and mules; inky black smoke towered skywards for weeks afterwards while Gardner’s photographers walked the battlefield and photographed the carnage.
As they sat in camp, Continue Reading »
I’d lived in Hoboken for a half-dozen years before I realized that Stevens Institute of Technology, right down the road from where we live, has a collection of original USS Monitor drawings. It took a bit longer for me to get it together and query the school about visiting to view the plans. Since then I’ve been going through their original letters and log books on the Stevens Battery, looking for elusive drawings of that cursed ship.
Yesterday, though, it was back to the USS Monitor, as I helped staff, students, and another volunteer, pull all of the drawings and begin photographing them. Our photos are mere reminders of what is there, and their present condition, before they are to be packed up and sent to the Mariner’s Museum in Newport News, VA, for full digitizing, so that others can see what is there. And there are some amazing items: several drawings done in pencil by Ericsson himself, two plans that were obviously used in the machinist shop as they’re covered with fingerprints and spots of oil and dirt, and two color inked drawings of what appear to be Swedish gunboat prototypes that Ericsson designed and drew.
I’m really looking forward to finishing up the project and getting the plans to the Mariner’s, and I’m really hoping we’ll find some more cool stuff in the process.
Wars are about attrition. They start out with patriotic slogans, promises to protect those who can’t protect themselves, or the notion of righting horrific wrongs, but the series of battles themselves come down to attrition: each side kills as many of the other side until one has lost too many lives or they’ve expended all of their resources in the contest, and they then surrender. That’s it, and it’s rarely more evident than in the Civil War (although World War I has my vote for the most effective campaign to thin humanity’s population), and there’s no greater monument to the loss of life in the Civil War than the Battle of Antietam.
Following the Battle of South Mountain, Union General McClellan had the Confederate armies on the run. Continue Reading »
The Battle of South Mountain is obscured and ignored by history, so much so that it’s difficult to write about it. The reason to bring it up in discussion of the Iron Brigade is that they earned their permanent moniker during the battle. While that happened, men fought there, died there. No small skirmish — large portions of both the Union and Confederate armies engaged throughout the day of September 14th in and around the three mountain passes named Fox’s, Crampton’s and Turner’s gap – the battle claimed over 2300 Union and 2600 Confederate casualties.
Unlike Brawner’s Farm, Antietam, or Gettysburg, Continue Reading »
Yesterday evening, August 28th, I sat on our deck in Hoboken, New Jersey, right before sunset. I watched the sun sink below the horizon and thought about what was kicking off down in Virginia, 150 years ago. The battle at Brawner Farm began just before sunset, at about 6 p.m. in 1862, but now with time zones and other factors, it was nearly 8 p.m. here by the time the sky had turned to a gradient of orange upwards to dark blue, and everyday objects replaced their hard lines with shadows.
Brawner Farm was the first battle for the Union unit known as The Iron Brigade, a unit I’ve developed a particular fondness for. They didn’t have that name 150 years ago at Brawner Farm, though, not yet. They’d earn that at the battle of South Mountain in less than a month. On August 28th, they were known as the Black Hats. The unit was made up of entirely “western” soldiers, men from Wisconsin and Indiana; the only brigade in the eastern theater to be made up so. In order to further distinguish them, their commander John Gibbon outfit them in the regular army uniform of tall black hats, long blue frock coats, and even dress leggings. Imagine going into battle wearing that.
The unit was formed in late 1861, Continue Reading »